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Part 1 of this series looked into the identity of the Son of God particularly in the Old Testament and his role in God’s creational plan, focusing on his involvement in creation as well as his involvement in God’s relationship with mankind. This Part 2 of the series will now begin to look into the incarnation of the Son of God and his transition from deity i.e. divine nature to human flesh. Also discussed in this Part 2 are the implications surrounding the Son’ decision to become flesh. More specifically the ways in which he became a better substitute for Adam, Jacob (i.e. Israel) and Solomon. I have divided this Part 2 in three subheadings: 1. The birth of the Son, 2. The Son of God is completely human, and 3. The Son as the second Adam, the second Jacob and the second Solomon
1. Birth of the Son
Then the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favour with God. “And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name JESUS. “He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.” Then Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I do not know a man?” And the angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God.
Take particular note to the word ‘therefore’ which serves to qualify the preceding statement. In other words, the Holy One to be born will be called the Son of God because of the statement preceding ‘therefore’. According to the angel, Jesus will be called the Son of God because “The Holy Spirit will come upon [Mary], and the power of the Highest will overshadow [her]”. This statement is in accordance with what is called a parallelism, something very common in the Old Testament, particularly the poetic books. This is where the writer makes a statement and repeats it again using different words. It is called a parallelism because the statements though being different have one shared meaning. Let’s consider what the angel said again “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you”.
The nouns “Holy Spirit” and “Power of the Highest” are parallel to each other.
The verbs “come upon” and “overshadow” are parallel to each other.
We could restate this without destroying the meaning as follows: “The Holy Spirit, the Power of the Highest, will come upon and overshadow you.”
The task for us is to identify whom the subject is? We are left to determine what is meant by the terms “holy Spirit” and “Power of the Highest”. Additionally, we are left to establish what is meant by the verbs “come upon” and “overshadow”
The word translated as ‘spirit’ comes from the greek word ‘Puema’ which when translated literally means breath/wind. Breath/wind can have metaphorical meanings relating to their effects. For example in John 3:8 Jesus said “The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you have not seen from where it comes and where it goes. So also is the whole collective of the [ones] having been begotten out of the Spirit” The words ‘wind’ and ‘spirit’ in this verse have been translated out of the same root Greek word, that is, ‘Puema’. Yet, the word puema is being applied in two different ways by Jesus in the verse. When he speaks of the wind blowing where it wills and the sound is thus heard, Jesus is using ‘puema’ literally. Whereas when he spoke of the state of the one who has been born out from the spirit/breath/wind, he is uses ‘puema’ metaphorically through effect, meaning that the person who is born again has his/her influence and direction from God. Another example lies in the power of the wind. The wind depending on how strong it is, has the power to move objects, thus the metaphorical meaning is derived from the power the wind has. This is what Jesus meant by “So also is the whole collective of the [ones] having been begotten out of the spirit”. The translators understood that Jesus is using the wind metaphorically thus they have translated the literal word ‘wind’ as “spirit” in this verse.
There is big appreciation towards translators who have done their best to produce the English versions of the Bible. They have made great efforts to translate the word ‘puema’ which literally means breath/wind as spirit whenever they think breath/wind is being used metaphorically. The only problem and in many cases becomes a huge problem is that the translators are having to decide for the reader when breath/wind is being used metaphorically. Hence they are translating through the lenses of their own theological backgrounds. They ought rather correctly to always translate ‘puema’ literally as breath/wind, giving the reader enough room to decide for themselves whether the words breath/wind are being used metaphorically.
In addition to this the translators have not been consistent in their use of the word ‘spirit’. In certain instances, they appear to use ‘spirit’ in the metaphorical sense of “breath/wind” and on other occasions, they have used “spirit” in describing objects or beings which are unseen, for example angels. The problem comes in when one is having to decide if “spirit” is being used metaphorically or in reference to an unseen being. To make matters even more confusing, the translators have on occasion capitalized the ‘S’ in ‘spirit’ when referring to the ‘Holy spirit’. This they do purely out of their own theological background in an attempt to personify God’s Holy breath.
The point in all this is that the translators ought to always have simply translated “puema’ as breath/wind whenever ‘puema’ is found in the greek, irrespective of whether it is speaking of angels, God’s holy breath or the metaphorical applications of breath/wind. It should be up to the reader to determine from the context of each passage.
“God is Puema” or in other words “God is breath/wind”, He is unseen and has profound influence on creation. This we know to be true and also because Jesus said so in John 4:24 when he gave direction that God must be worshipped in breath and truth, or metaphorically “in spirit and truth”. We also know that God is Holy and thus logically, God is ‘Holy breath/wind’ or conversely God is ‘Holy spirit’. The Son of God before his incarnation as human had the same description. He also was ‘Holy’ and ‘spirit’ thus was ‘Holy spirit/breath/wind’. It also goes without saying that the “breath of truth” that convicts the world of sin, righteousness and judgement is also known as ‘Holy spirit/breath/wind’.
Could it be that when the angel said to Mary “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you”, he was referring to the preincarnate Son of God himself (who was indeed Holy Spirit) coming upon her and overshadowing her?
Consider also the parallelism between “The power of the Highest” and “The Holy Spirit”. The power of the highest is undeniably the Holy spirit/breath/wind. Did Paul not refer to Christ as the “Power of God” in 1 Corinthians 1:23-24 “but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God” and again in 1 Corinthians 2:2-5 “For I determined not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified…that your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.”
If Paul refers to Christ as the Power of God, is he not then “the power of the Highest” as spoken by the angel to Mary?
Would it not also be the case that the Son of God needed empty himself of his divinity to become a human baby in Mary’s womb? Does the scripture not say likewise in Philippians 2:5-8 that “Christ Jesus who, being in the form of God, did not consider equality with God [to be] plunder, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a slave, becoming in the likeness of men. And having been found as human in design, He suppressed Himself, becoming obedient unto death, even death of a cross.”? And John also when he writes in John 1:14 that the “Logos became flesh and dwelt among us”.
Furthermore, the earliest Christians before any English translation existed to muddy the waters, understood that the “Power of God” and the “Holy spirit/breath” in Luke 1:35 was a reference to the Logos/Word Himself:
Justin Martyr writes “This, then, ‘Behold, a virgin shall conceive,’ signifies that a virgin should conceive without intercourse. For if she had had intercourse with any one whatever, she was no longer a virgin; but the Power of God having come upon the virgin, overshadowed her, and caused her while yet a virgin to conceive. And the angel of God who was sent to the same virgin at that time brought her good news, saying, ‘Behold, thou shalt conceive of the Holy Spirit, and shalt bear a Son, and He shall be called the Son of the Highest, and thou shalt call His name Jesus; for He shall save His people from their sins,’— as they who have recorded all that concerns our Savior Jesus Christ have taught, whom we believed, since by Isaiah also, whom we have now adduced, the Spirit of prophecy declared that He should be born as we intimated before. It is wrong, therefore, to understand the Spirit and the Power of God as anything else than the Word, who is also the first-begotten of God, as the foresaid prophet Moses declared; and it was this which, when it came upon the virgin and overshadowed her, caused her to conceive, not by intercourse, but by Power.” (see Justin Martyr, First Apology, ch. Xxxiii).
Theophilus of Antioch also writes “God, then, having His own Word internal within His own bowels, begat Him, emitting Him along with His own Wisdom before all things. He had this Word as a helper in the things that were created by Him, and by Him He made all things. He is called “governing principle,” because He rules, and is Lord of all things fashioned by Him. He, then, being Spirit of God, and governing principle, and Wisdom, and Power of the Highest, came down upon the prophets, and through them spoke of the creation of the world and of all other things”. (see Theophilus, To Autolycus, Bk. II, ch. X).
Irenaeus also writes “For He is indeed Savior, as being the Son and Word of God; but salutary, since [He is] Spirit; for he says: ‘The Spirit of our countenance, Christ the Lord’ [Quoting from Lamentations 4:20 (LXX)]. But salvation, as being flesh: for ‘the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.’ This knowledge of salvation, therefore, John did impart to those repenting, and believing in the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world.” (see Irenaeus, Book III, ch. x, ii).
Tertullian also writes “Again, although denying His birth from such cohabitation, the passage did not deny that He was born of real flesh; it rather affirmed this, by the very fact that it did not deny His birth in the flesh in the same way that it denied His birth from sexual intercourse. Pray, tell me, why the Spirit of God descended into a woman’s womb at all, if He did not do so for the purpose of partaking of flesh from the womb. For He could have become spiritual flesh without such a process, — much more simply, indeed, without the womb than in it. He had no reason for enclosing Himself within one, if He was to bear forth nothing from it. Not without reason, however, did He descend into a womb. Therefore He received (flesh) therefrom; else, if He received nothing therefrom, His descent into it would have been without a reason, especially if He meant to become flesh of that sort which was not derived from a womb, that is to say, a spiritual one.” (see Tertullian, On the Flesh of Christ, XIX).
The conclusion is that the Son of God descended as the Holy breath of God into Mary’s womb and became flesh after he had emptied himself of his divinity.
Therefore concluding with subheading 1, we know that He was to be called Jesus/Joshua/iesous/Yahshua/Yeshua/Yehoshua. What remains prevalent for us right now is understanding what the Bible means when it says that the Son of God emptied himself. To understand this we now turn to sub-heading 2.
2. The Son of God is completely human.
There are two aspects to Jesus’ humanity that draws the understanding that he was just as human as we all are. There was no difference in his nature and our nature. He became just as we are, ate, rested, cried, vulnerable, emotionally overwhelmed, suffering, love, desires and passions, temptations, etc. The only thing which he had differently was the fact that he was personally trained and taught by his Father – God (more on this below).
This subheading dives into two areas, proving that Jesus was as much human in every way. Looking at A) the source of his power to do miracles and B) His weaknesses.
So A) The source of his power.
After having entered Jerusalem during a Feast of the Judeans, most likely a Passover feast, and having healed on the Sabbath a man who was lame for thirty-eight years, Jesus was accused by Jew of breaking the Sabbath. Accordingly the Jews believed it provided grounds for him to be killed. They were much more determined to kill him because Jesus said “My Father is working until now, and I am working” when they questioned Him regarding the miracles he was doing on the Sabbath. From their perspective, He had not only broken the Sabbath but had also made himself equal with God by calling God his father. Jesus’ responded further in John 5:19-47 a rather lengthy passage worthy of reading entirely. However for our purposes, only v19-20 and v30 are under consideration. Note what Jesus said “Truly, truly, I tell you, the Son is powerless to perform from himself – not even one thing – except as He may observe the Father performing. For whatever [the Father] should be performing, these things also the Son likewise does. For the Father loves the Son and is showing Him everything which He is doing. And greater deeds than these things He will be showing Him so that you may marvel.” And again Jesus said “I am powerless to perform from Myself – not one thing. According as I hear I judge, and My judgment is just because I do not seek My will, but the will of [My] Father, the one having sent Me.”
Notice Jesus confirms that he was not able from himself to do anything. The point Jesus was trying to make was that, if the Jews are right in that he was breaking the Sabbath by doing miracles, those miracles would have been impossible since God is the source behind that power. Therefore if God had supplied the power for Him Jesus to heal on the Sabbath, then it proves that: 1) he has indeed been sent by God and they ought to listen to him, 2) God is in fact on his side and 3) they would also have to accuse the Father of being a law breaker since he is the one doing the miracles through Jesus
According to Jesus, no miracles can be done unless God is involved and willing. This is something that remains true throughout the Bible. Another example is the healing of the man blind from birth in John 8:16-34 “Then [some] from among the Pharisees were saying, “This man is not from God because he does not keep the Sabbath.” Others said, “How is a sinner-man capable to do such signs?” And a schism was occurring among them. They said to the blind [man] again, “What do you say about him, since he opened your eyes?” But he said that “He is a prophet.” Then the Judeans… said to him, “Give the glory to God. We have observed that this man is a sinner.” Then he responded and said, “Whether He is a sinner, I have not observed. One thing I have observed, that being blind, I now see!… For in this is an amazing thing, that you have not observed where He is from, yet He opened my eyes! But we know that God does not hear sinners, yet if anyone should be a God-fearer and should do His will, this one He hears. From out of the age it has not been heard that anyone opens the eyes of one having been begotten blind! Unless this one was from God, He was powerless to do anything”.
Note also what Nicodemus a teacher of the scriptures said to Jesus in John 3:2 “Rabbi, we have observed that you have come from God, a teacher, for no one is able to do these signs which you are doing unless God should be with him.”
The Jews had an understanding that all power came from God. Any manifestation of power was a demonstration that God was involved. Jesus did not have any power from himself but was in all things just like us. The source of His power was none other than the Father himself, who was dwelling in His Son through His Holy breath just as Jesus said in John 14:10 “Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me? The sayings that I speak to you, I am not speaking from Myself. Also the Father, the one dwelling in Me, He is performing the deeds”.
Observe also what Peter said to the Jews in Acts 2:22 “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst” and again in Acts 10:38 “how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him”.
B) His Weaknesses
Heb 4:14-15 “Having then a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens – Jesus the Son of God – we should cling to the profession. For we do not have a High Priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way that we are, [yet] without sin.”
This passage hinges on two very important things about Jesus Christ. The first is that he is able to understand our weaknesses not merely because he before his incarnation created us but rather because he himself being human was tempted in every way just as we are. The second point in this passage is that he was without sin though he was tempted in every way, nothing is excluded. We also learn that temptation by itself is not sin and according to James 1:14, temptation is a reality because of our own desires. The sin is committed when we are overcome by those desires and enticed into them contrary to God’s will. Jesus also had desires and was tempted but he never submitted himself to those desires, instead submitted himself under God’s will through obedience. He made godly choices every time he was tempted. It is a position we have all found ourselves in and will continue to find ourselves in for as long as this age endures, and should likewise submit ourselves in obedience to God’s will. There is no excuse for sin except for a lack of knowledge and understanding of God’s law.
Jesus was not a forgetful hearer who learned knowledge and failed to apply it, rather He learnt knowledge and strived in what he learnt. This was why he was without sin. The Bible in Isaiah 7:14-16 (LXX) (see also Matthew 1:23), a prophecy of Jesus’ birth and childhood teaches us that before he would intimately know good or evil through participation, he would learn to choose good from a young age. Luke 2:46-52 records 12 years old Jesus in the temple learning while his parents were out searching for him. “So when they did not find Him, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking Him… they found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them and asking them questions. And all who heard Him were astonished at His understanding and answers. So when they saw Him, they were amazed; and His mother said to Him, “Son, why have you done this to us? Look, your father and I have sought you anxiously.” And He said to them, “Why did you seek me? Did you not know that I must be about My Father’s business?” But they did not understand the statement which He spoke to them. Then He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was subject to them, but His mother kept all these things in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and maturity, and in favour with God and men.”
This theme of learning and education through Jesus’ life is expected. What else can in fact be expected of the Son of God if he emptied himself of knowledge, power, divinity, and everything else? Having emptied himself, we can reasonably expect that he did not know everything and would have to rely completely on his Father to inform him of the future and things happening around him. Mark 11 records Jesus feeling hungry and having seen a fig tree with many leaves he assumed it had figs so he went towards it hoping he might get some figs to eat. Upon arriving he noticed that the tree had no figs so he cursed the tree and indeed the tree was withered by the next day. In all fairness it was not the season for figs so it is reasonable that the tree did not have any fruits, nonetheless Jesus had still hoped to find fruit to eat. Contrary to popular belief, Jesus as human did not actually know everything. Why? Because he was human just like us, his knowledge was not perfect.
Is it not unthinkable that the Son of God had to learn? One would assume that he was all knowing before and after his incarnation. Is it not even more unthinkable that the Son of God also had to learn to obey? Or even worse, is it not profound to say that the Son of God also went through suffering just as we also do? That’s exactly what Hebrews 5:7-8 teaches. That the Son of God “learnt obedience from the things He suffered”.
Philippians 2:5-8 summarizes the discussion so far in this way “Christ Jesus who, being in the form of God, did not consider equality with God [to be] plunder, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a slave, becoming in the likeness of men. And having been found as human in design, He suppressed Himself, becoming obedient unto death, even death of a cross.”
Paul tells us that death, the ceasing to be alive, was also a reality for the Son of God, and knowing this he still chose through his own will, to suppress himself onto humanity. Not only that, but he also chose death in the most painful way, death on a cross. Adding to that Romans 5:8 tells us that he chose all this for the redemption of his enemies. Why would anyone do that? Why would anyone in a position as high as equality with God choose to become human, be bound to a fate of death even death on a cross for the benefit of one’s enemies?… In our society, we would call that naïve but God calls it love. See Part 3 of this series which goes further into the theological implications of Jesus’ death on the cross and why his decision was essential for the redemption of mankind from the curse of death.
We have discussed so far in this Part 2, subheading 1.The birth of the Son, looking at the means through which the only-begotten Son of God became flesh, and subheading 2. The Son of God is completely human, looking at his humanity, weaknesses and limitations. We now turn to subheading 3.
3. The Son as the second Adam, the second Jacob and the second Solomon.
The very first purpose God had for man in His creation was a position of responsibility and authority. Genesis 1:26 “Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”
David similarly writes concerning man’s rule over creation in Psalm 8:4-6 “What is man that you are mindful of him, and the son of man that you visit him? For you have made him a little lower than the angels, and you have crowned him with glory and honour. You have made him to have dominion over the works of your hands”
However, Paul commenting further writes in Hebrews 2:8-9 “For in subjecting everything to him, He [God] left nothing outside [man’s] dominion. Yet now we do not yet see everything having been subjected to him. But we see Jesus, “crowned with glory and honour,” having been “made a little lower than the angels” for the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God He might partake of death for every man.”
God’s intended purpose was for man to rule over creation but since Adam failed and was not found worthy of ruling because he sinned, and consequently brought a penalty of death to the creation including all of mankind, God had to bring a substitute. Accordingly, “Yet now we do not yet see everything having been subjected to him. But we see Jesus, “crowned with glory and honour,” having been “made a little lower than the Angels” for the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God He might partake of death for every man.”
Adam brought a penalty of death for every man but Jesus through his death is leading many to life and glory. This is profound if one fully understands the implications (see Romans 5 and 1 Corinthians 15; also see Part 3 of this Series ‘The Son of God, the giver of life’).
Jesus also became the perfect substitute for Jacob (i.e. the house of Israel).
God’s covenant for redemption and restoration of the creation from death and decay began with Abraham in Genesis 17:7-8. God said, “I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your seed after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, … Also I give to you and your seed after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession;…”
To fulfill this promise of an everlasting land possession by Abraham and his seed after him, God raised up the nation of Israel and extended the promise to them saying to Moses in Leviticus 18:1-5 “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘I am the Lord your God. According to the doings of the land of Egypt… you shall not do; and according to the doings of the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you, you shall not do; nor shall you walk in their ordinances. You shall observe My judgments and keep My ordinances, to walk in them: I am the Lord your God. You shall therefore keep My statutes and My judgments, which if a man does, he shall live by them: I am the Lord”
God gave his law as a guardian to the nation of Israel, who consistently disobeyed God’s voice and proved themselves unworthy to be called Abraham’s seed. Therefore Jesus became the second Israel and perfect seed of Abraham through birth because he was of the flesh of Abraham, and through obedience because he kept God’s law perfectly. For the scripture records Him saying “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfil” (Matthew 5:17-20). Meaning Jesus came not only as the rightful heir and seed to Abraham, but also provide a perfect demonstration of obedience to God’s law, as it ought to have been followed.
In doing this, He also became the second Solomon, demonstrating the correct application of wisdom and thus fulfilling the promise God made to David – who was Solomon’s father. This was the promise God made to David in 2 Samuel 7:10-16 “…I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously, …“When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his Father, and he shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men. But My mercy shall not depart from him… And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever”.
God promised to establish David’s throne forever through succession of David’s own seed. Solomon could have been that seed who was going to sit on the throne forever. But he was found unworthy by God who he declared to him in 1 Kings 11 that the Kingdom was going to be torn away from him. Solomon had accumulated much wealth and imported chariots from Egypt, something God forbade Kings from doing. He also married many wives from nations God had forbidden. Wives that influenced him to build high places for false gods, even going as far as worshipping some of those gods, which turned his heart away from the true God.
Consequently, Jesus who is a seed of David became the person deserving to be called “The Son of David”. He was found worthy by God who declared saying “this is My Son in whom I am well pleased” when Jesus was anointed at the Jordan River by John Baptist – a prophet. We read the following in Matthew 21:9 “Then the multitudes who went before and those who followed cried out and chanted, saying:
“Hosanna to the Son of David!
‘Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord!’
Hosanna in the highest!”
The words the multitude were chanting was from Psalm 118. A psalm that cries out to God for Salvation and liberation. This is exactly what the word ‘hosanna’ means. The multitude were thus praising God who had sent a King in succession to David, recognising that Jesus is that promised seed of David whose throne was going to be established forever. The multitudes understood that Jesus was the one to bring liberation and salvation to Israel. A salvation that would result in the people being planted in a land of their own forever, where the sons of wickedness would not oppress them anymore in fulfilment of God’s promise to David. Jesus therefore became the second Solomon and rightful seed on David’s throne (see Part 4 of this series which looks further into Jesus’ anointing as King on David’s Throne, and the extent of His Rule).
Accordingly, the words of the angel to Mary in Luke 1:30-35 were true “…behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name JESUS. “He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.”
Refer now to Part 3 of this series which discusses the theological implications of Jesus’ shed blood and why his decision was essential for redemption of mankind from the curse of death.
1. Birth of the Son
Luke 1:30-35 – Angel appears to Mary
1 Corinthians 1:23-24; 1 Corinthians 2:2-5 – Christ the power of the highest
Justin Martyr, First Apology, ch. Xxxiii
Theophilus, To Autolycus, Bk. II, ch. X
Irenaeus, Book III, ch. x, ii
Tertullian, On the Flesh of Christ, XIX
2. The Son of God is completely human
Philippians 2:5-8 – He emptied himself of divinity and took on flesh
John 5:19-47; John 8:16-34; John 3:2; John 14:10; Acts 2:22; Acts 10:38 – All power was supplied by God
Heb 4:14-15; James 1:14; – He shared our weaknesses
Isaiah 7:14-16 (LXX); Matthew 1:23; Luke 2:46-52 – He had to learn
Mark 11 – He did not know everything
3. The Son as the second Adam, the second Jacob and the second Solomon
Second Adam – Genesis 1:26; Psalm 8:4-6; Hebrews 2:8-9
Second Jacob – Genesis 17:7-8; Leviticus 18:1-5; Matthew 5:17-20
Second Solomon – 2 Samuel 7:10-16; 1 Kings 11; Matthew 21:9; Psalm 118; Luke 1:30-35